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Karl Schaeffer: Parni Generator
[ This is InFolio S2-SCH/Schaeffer: Steam Generator in Catalog 2012-Z ]
(1) NewsReal: "Skvely stroj na vyrobu pary odstranuje potrebu parnich kotlu"
(2) US Patent # 3,791,349: Steam Generator
(3) Komentare a poznamky
NewsReal (#2, June 1977)
"Skvely stroj na vyrobu pary odstranuje potrebu parnich kotlu"
Je k dispozici technologie, ktera je schopna ucinne eliminovat pouzivani zemniho plynu k ohrevu vody, vytapeni domu a pro prumyslove ucely. Je to stroj, ktery muze vyresit mnoho energetickych problemu, ktere se staly tak zrejmymi minulou zimu.
Jedna se o zarizeni vyrabejici paru, ktere vynalezl dnes zesnuly Karl Schaeffer z Chicaga. Schaefferova metoda vyroby prehrate pary je velmi dostupna a ekonomicky zcela odstrani potrebu velkych kotlu a primeho pouzivani fosilnich paliv.
Schaefferuv elektricky pohaneny stroj na paru take zpusobi, ze se stanou zbytecnymi miliony neustale horicich plaminku. (V originale je pouzit vyraz „pilot light“, ktery lze prekladat i jako kontrolka, kontrolni svetlo nebo horacek. pp)
Mezi vice nez 500 aplikacemi pary muze Schaefferovo zarizeni ucinne vytapet moderni dum s ucinnosti, ktera je o 20% vyssi nez pri pouziti elektriny.
Tento stroj vyrabi prehratou paru primo ze studene vody a bez nutnosti ji ohrivat jinym zpusobem.
Zni to neuveritelne, ze?
Neduvera byla jednim z klicovych problem, kterym musi celit Sonaqua Inc, mala firma, ktera se pokousi vyvinout a licencovat zivotni sen zesnuleho vynalezce.
Inzenyri se instinktivne stahli, kdyz byli konfrontovani s tvrzenimi skupiny Sonaqua. Schaefferovi se podarilo neco neobycejneho, co v ucebnicich nenajdete.
Karlu Schaefferovi bylo 67 let, kdyz tomuto reporterovi poprve poskytl inerview a kdy v roce 1973 fotografoval jeho demonstracni model. Pribeh nebyl zverejnen drive, protoze Sonaqua Inc chtela produkt pred zverejnenim nejdrive uplne vyvinout.
Toto zarizeni neni dosud uplne vyvinuto, ale je treba informace o nem zverejnit, protoze svet tuto novou formu energie potrebuje.
Karl Schaeffer nasel zpusob, jak vyuzit jiste obrovske prirodni sily, ktere jsou obsazeny v molekulach vody. Jinym zpusobem vysvetlit jeho princip nelze.
„Vsechno pro me zacalo v dobe, kdyz jsem byl studentem posledniho rocniku obchodne-technicke skoly v Berline. Psal se rok 1924,“ rika Schaeffer svym silnym nemeckym prizvukem.
„Byl jsem v pradelne a kdyz jsem zavrel vodu, uslysel jsem v potrubi ranu,“ rekl a odvolaval se na to, cemu inzenyri rikaji „vodni kladivo“, fenomen v potrubi, ktery se technologie snazi odstranit.
„Byla to hlasita rana a v tu chvili jsem si rekl: v tom vodnim kladivu je energie! A od tohoto okamziku jsem byl chyceny.“
„Byl jsem samozrejme zvedavy, jestli by bylo mozne tuto energii vyuzit, a tak zacal muj celozivotni vyzkum – ano, trval 50 let, ale tuto energii jsem „zaprahnul“ a nyni muze pohanet svet.“
Muj stroj opravdu muze bezet stale, dokud do neho tece voda. Neomezena energie! Energie zadarmo! Predstavte si to!
Karl Schaeffer byl omlouvan svymi pomocniky kvuli „prehaneni“. „Vubec neprehanim,“ kricel Schaeffer. „Vim, co jsem videl!
Vynalezce byl behem let, kdy se pokousel zdokonalit sve zarizeni, ctyrikrat svedkem nevysvetleneho fenomenu. Odpojil motor od elekricke energie, ale stroj bezel dal, dokud se nadrz s vodou nevyprazdnila.
Jeho mechanismus dodaval dostatek energie pro vyrobu pary ze studene vody a take pro udrzovani zarizeni v chodu pri odpojenem privodu energie.
Tyto nevysvetlene prihody vedly Schaeffera k prohlasenim, ktera ostatnim pripadala „divoka“. Ale i v pripade, ze by se jeho tvrzeni nezakladala na pravde, coz se zda, ze neni jeho pripad, jeho stroj vyrabi paru s mnohem vetsi ucinnosti nez nez kterekoli jine stroje, vynalezene clovekem.
Karl Schaeffer tvrde pracoval a po prichodu do Ameriky z rodneho Nemecka venoval vsechen svuj cas a znacnou cast rodinneho jmeni sve „mechanicke posedlosti“. Nakonec se mu vsak podarilo tuto jednoduchou narazovou vlnu ve vodovodnim potrubi „zaprahnout“.
Zda se, ze toto zarizeni opravdu vyuziva dvou principu, ktere se inzenyri snazi odstranit-- vodni kladivo a kavitaci,“ poznamenal dr. Tom Hunter, byvaly profesor mechanickeho inzenyrstvi na Technologickem institutu v Illinois, kdyz videl demonstraci Schaefferova stroje.
„Sila je ve vode pritomna vzdy, ja se ji naucil zesilit a vyuzivat,“ rekl Schaeffer durazne.
Jeden odbornik na strojirenstvi, chemii a fyziku, zatimco se dival na rotujici Schaefferuv stroj, chrlici paru, rekl:
„Verim, ze uvojnuje energii, ktera je obsazena v molekulach vody a to nas privadi na prah zcela nove koncepce cerpani energie.“
V zasade je zrejme, ze vibracni a narazova povaha vody muze byt vyuzita jako zdroj dalsi energie.
Schaefferuv stroj je pohanen elekromotorem, ktery roztaci kovovy disk. Studena voda bezi do rotujiciho kola, kde specialne konstruovane komory zpusobuji vznik rady neobycejne rychlych narazu, ktere vodu premeni na prehratou paru.
Schaeffer nekolikrat predvadel toto zarizeni na premenu energie ve sve mechanicke dilne na Belmont Avenue v Chicagu pro autora tohoto clanku. Zarizeni bylo hrube a neefektivni v porovnani s pozdejsimi modely Boba Price ze Sonaquy, ale presto bylo pusobive.
„Divej se, co se stane,“ rekl stary muz pysne, kdyz prichazel ke svemu stroji pripevnenemu k podlaze. „Vis, jak dlouho trva nez se zacne varit voda na tvem sporaku, ze?“
Prikyvl jsem, ze neco vim o kotlech, ohrivacich a vyrobe pary.
„Dej ruku sem,“ naridil mi a ja polozil svoji ruku na trubku vedouci do zarizeni z vodni nadrze. Byla studena jako voda z kohoutku.
Elektromotor o vykonu 20 konskych sil byl namontovan pod tezkym, kovovym obeznym kolem. Z opacne strany disku vycnivala trubka, ktera byla zahnuta nahoru a potom rovne a vedla ven z okna.
Schaeffer stiskl spinac a ja byl svedkem uzasne premeny energie – neceho zcela noveho v analech strojniho inzenyrstvi. Motor bzucel a Schaeffer si 20 sekund hral s ventilem a drive nez uplynulo pul minuty se ven z okna chrlila prehrata para.
Vystupni trubka byla behem kratke doby prilis horka na dotek, prestoze vstupni trubka, do niz proudila chladna voda, byla stale studena.
Elektromotor o vykonu 20 koni je opravdu silny zdroj energie, ale pozdejsi testy na presnych mericich aparaturach prokazaly, ze vystupni vykon – ve forme pary – byl vetsi nez vykon spotrebovany elektromotorem, coz je podle zakonu fyziky nemozne, presto je to fakt!
V zari 1973 vzala Sonaqua Inc. Schaefferovo zarizeni do slavneho vyzkumneho ustavu Battelle v Columbusu, Ohio, na zkousky ucinnosti.
Vysledky vice nez osmi zkousek, predlozene Georgeovi W. Moffittovi Jr., predsedovi spravni rady firmy Sonaqua Inc. 4. rijna 1973 L. J. Flaniganem z Jaderne a proudove sekce Battelle, ukazovaly ucinnost v rozsahu 97,3% az 99,0%.
Zajimavou informaci nad ramec formalni zpravy je, ze mnohe experimenty pry „nebyly definitivni, protoze experimentalni pristroj byl vadny a zpusobil, ze vysledky byly velmi nejiste.“
Avsak zamestnanci Battelle pry tvrdili, ze doslo k nevysvetlenemu fenomenu. Jeden inzenyr Bobu Pricemu rekl: „Meli jsme zaznamy, ze ucinnost nekolikrat presahla 100%, ale to neni mozne.“
„Bylo mi receno, ze jednou bylo dosazeno ucinnosti 117%,“ rekl Price, snazici se potlacit smich pri pomysleni, jaky zmatek museli prozivat inzenyri, kteri zkousky provadeli.
Lide ze Sonaquy, zvlaste Price, se nyni peclive vyhybaji jakymkoli tvrzenim o nevysvetlene energii. „Mame potencialne nejlevnejsi pristroj na vyrobu pary a s nejvyssi ucinnosti na svete,“ rekl Price.
Sonaqua zacala prodavat licence na vyrobu domacich ohrivacu, ale pouze zjistila, ze i dalsi firmy maji po dvou letech stejne problemy s vyvojem jako materska firma – musi se potykat s dogmatickym skepticismem a je obtizne sehnat penize na vyvoj.
Firma Aquasonic z Denveru prokazala, ze dum se tremi pokoji a sklepem muze byt pohodlne vytopen se dvema malymi motory o vykonu 3 kone.
„Dokazali vytopit dum se spotrebou elektriny o 20% mensi nez pomoci klasickeho elektrickeho kotle a nemeli problem udrzet v dome teplo – nadmerne teplo,“ rekl Price.
Jiz dve zimy pouziva jeden dum ve chladnem horskem meste vice nez adekvatni vytapeni pomoci dvou malych motoru a Schaefferova zarizeni.
Sonaqua pozadala o udeleni grantu na studium fenomenu, ktery zpusobuje ohrev vody. Schaefferovi synove, Kurt a Karl, pracovali s Bobem Pricem a zkonstruovali experimentalni zarizeni, aby presne zjistili, co se deje v otcove mechanickem pristroji.
Bez ohledu na to, zda grant na takove studium dostanou, nebo ne, zda se byt hloupe toto zarizeni nepouzivat. Neni pochyb o tom, ze funguje, a mohlo by pomoci omezit nadmernou spotrebu energie v Americe.
Edisonova zarovka davala svetlo v dobe, kdy teorie elektriny byla v plenkach. Neni nezbytne nutne presne vedet, co se v Schaefferove stroji deje – stroj pracuje spolehlive a vic neni treba.
Dr. Hunter, ktery videl zarizeni v cinnosti za pritomnosti tohoto novinare, rekl, ze zrejme pracuje v sirokem rozsahu ucinnsti a kdyby bylo radne vyvinuto a spravne serizeno, sance na vyrobu by byly vynikajici.
Profesor mechaniky odmitl komentovat „nevysvetlenou“ cast pribehu.
Podivejme se na to timto zpusobem: I kdyby stroj vyrabel paru s ucinnosti pouhych 98% (coz Battell jednoznacne potvrdil), potom je to nejlepsi zarizeni, ktere kdy bylo vyvinuto pro vytapeni domu.
A neni treba mit velke nadrze na horkou vodu, ale postaci mensi nadrze. Take neni nutne mit „vecny plaminek“ a privod zemniho plynu.
Pro velke budovy nejsou treba drahe systemy kotlu na plyn nebo uhli.
Az „nevysvetleny fenomen uvolnovani energie obsazene v molekulach vody“ bude konecne prokazan a pod kontrolou, svet bude mit alternativni zdroj energie, ktery tak nalehave potrebuje.
US Patent # 3,791,349
February 12, 1974
US Cl. 122/11, 122/26
Intl. Cl. F22b 3/06
Pristroj a metoda vyroby pary a tlaku pomoci vytvareni vnitrnichrazovych vln v rozsirujici se nadobe s vodou. Vytvorene razove vlny maji povahu vodniho kladiva. Tyto vlny jsou opakovany a zesileny do te miry, ze se vytvori teplo a tlak, cimz se voda premeni na paru, vhodnou k dalsimu pouziti.
(1) Oblast vynalezu
Parni generatory se pouzivaji jiz mnoho let. Takove generatory pouzivaly paliva ke zvyseni teploty vody v kotli, dokud se voda nepromenila v paru. Pouziti parnich generatoru je rozmanite. Mnoho vytapecich systemu budov pouziva paru jako ohrivaci medium. Mnoho chemickych procesu pouziva paru k vyvolani jistych chemickych reakci. Nektere z nich pouzivaji paru jako zdroj tepla nebo prispiva k reakci, zatimco jine pouzivaji paru jako katalyzator podporujici pozadovanou reakci. Mnoho fyzikalnich problemu pomaha resit pouziti ostre pary. Napriklad pri urcitych druzich dulnich cinnosti se para pouziva k odstranovani mineralu z horniny. Take pri provadeni vrtu pro tezbu ropy a zemniho plynu je casto zadouci pouzit ostrou paru, aby pomohla tyto kapaliny a plyny vytlacit na zemsky povrch.
Dochazime k zaveru, ze parni generatory byly v minulosti uzitecne a budou uzitecne i v budoucnosti, zvlaste v tom pripade, pokud bude k dispozici parni generator s hospodarnejsim provozem. Predkladany vynalez je prave takovym uspornym parnim generatorem.
(2) Popis dosud pouzivane techniky
Pouziti vodniho kladiva pro generovani pary nebylo, podle nasich znalosti, dosud nikdy uskutecneno. Avsak fyzikove a inzenyri jiz dlouho vedi o existenci vodniho kladiva. Ruzne knihy a texty se vodnim kladivem a jeho vlastnostmi zabyvaji. Mezi ne patri:
B.S. Massey: Mechanics of Fluids, Van Nos Rinhold, 1971 (pages 412 to 427).
John N. Bradley: Shock Waves in Chemistry & Physics;1962, Wiley, American Press, Metchuen, NY (pages 172 & 173).
Horace W. King: Handbook of Hydraulics… (4th Ed.), Revised by E. Brater; McGraw-Hill, NY, 1954 (pages 6-21 to 6-27).
Bylo provedeno prohledavani patentu, zda jiz podobne zarizeni neexistuje, a tento pruzkum potvrdil nasi viru, ze takove zarizeni dosud vynalezeno nebylo.
US Patent # 3,141,296, udeleny Jacobsovi, Jr, popisuje vyuziti razovych vln vyvolanych v kapaline elektrickym vybojem ke konani uzitecne prace. Razove vlny, vytvorene vybojem elektriny v komore naplnene kapalinou, se pouzivaji k cerpani kapaliny.
US Patent # 3,398,686, udeleny Guinovi, popisuje motor, ktery vyuziva energii razovych vln, vytvorenych v kapaline, vybojem elektriny pres jiskriste. Vynalezy Jacobse a Guina jsou navzajem velmi podobne a je zrejme, ze zadny z nich nepouziva razove vlny k vyznamnemu zvyseni teploty kapaliny. Zadny z nich take nevytvarel razove vlny v kapaline, odopovidajici vodnimu kladivu, pomoci mechanickych prostredku za ucelem zpusobeni zvyseni teploty do te miry, aby se premenila v paru.
Dalsi parni generatory, ktere maji vodni komory podobne jako predkladany vynalez, jsou: Loefler, US Patent # 2,316,522, Gray, US Patent # 3,508,402, Reynolds, US Patent # 3,690,302. Avsak zadne z techto patentovanych zarizeni nepouziva razove vlny k ohrevu vody, ale k ohrevu vody a jeji premene v paru pouzivaji horlavy plyn. Krome toho pri podrobnejsi analyze vyjde najevo, ze vsechny tyto komory se od komory tohoto vynalezu lisi a postradaji mechanismus pro generovani razovych vln, ktery je dale specifikovan.
A principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel steam generator.
An important object of this invention is to provide a novel device to produce and intensify a series of water hammers within a distended body of water to thereupon substantially raise the temperature and pressure of such water.
Still another important object of this invention is to provide a device as set forth in the preceding object in which the water hammer is caused by alternating forces -- first a centrifugal action and second a vacuum action -- causing the body of water to be first pulled in one direction and then to snap back in an opposite direction.
Another and still further important object of this invention is to provide a device of the preceding two object in which the distended body of water includes at least one closed bottom passageway in which the movement of water therein is suddenly extinguished and in which the snapping back and forth action of the water column occurs to thereby intentionally impart a water hammer to the body of water so that a portion thereof is continuously converted to live steam.
Other and further important object and advantages will become apparent from the disclosures in the following specifications and accompanying drawings.
Figure 1 is an elevational view of a preferred embodiment of the steam generator of this invention with portions thereof in cross section.
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken from the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Figure 1.
Figure 5 is an elevational view of a modified embodiment of the invention and with portions thereof in cross section.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of Figure 5.
Figure 7 is a sectional view taken on the line 7-7 of Figure 5.
Figure 8 is a sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 5.
Explanation of the Drawings ~
The reference numeral 10 indicates generally the preferred embodiment of the steam generator of this invention. A stationary housing 11 encloses the steam generator 10, the housing comprises a main body portion 11a, an upper cap 11b fastened to the central body portion 11c, an under cap 11d fastened to the body portion 11a by a circularly arranged series of cap screws 11e, a downwardly projecting central tubular portion 11f forming a part of the under cap 11d, and a bottom cover 11e fastened by a series of circularly arranged cap screws 11h to the central tubular portion 11f.
A vertically disposed motor driven shaft 12 having an annular shoulder 13 therearound is journally carried within the central tubular portion 11f of the housing 11 by means of a roller bearing 14. The inner race of the bearing 14 is disposed between the annular shoulder 13 of the rotating shaft 12 at its top and the stationary cover 11g at its bottom. An annular seal 15 is held within the housing 12 to effect a sealing of the chamber above the seal from communication with the device below the seal.
A rotor designated generally by the numeral 16 is carried on and with the upper end of the motor driven shaft 12. The outer surface of the rotor 16 is cone shaped and is adapted to rotate within the outer housing 11. The housing and the rotor carried therewithin together define a generally distended chamber for the body of water which has its temperature and pressure materially raised by subjecting it to shock waves. A water inlet 17 is provided in the housing cap 11d and is the means for delivering water to the distended chamber within the housing 11 and in and around the rotor 16. The chamber is defined as distended because it is not just an open one-part chamber but rather is broken up into many small passageways which project in many directions. Webster's defines "distend" as "to stretch out or extend in more than one direction". The water body chamber includes a horizontally disposed ring-shaped passage 18 located between the housing under cap 11d and rotor 16. The rotor is vertically spaced above the housing on its underside to define the ring-shaped passage 18. The water inlet 17 directly communicates with the ring-shaped passageway 18 as best shown in Figure 1. An upwardly and outwardly flaring annular cone-shaped passageway 19 is located between the housing body portion 11a and the rotor 16. Again, there is a spacing between these elements to define the cone-shaped passageway 19. A plurality of radially inwardly extending arcuately spaced apart passageways 20 are adapted to pass through a portion of the rotor 16. At their outer ends these passages 20 join the cone-shaped passageway 19. An inwardly inclined conical shaped passageway 20 runs directly into the conical shaped passageway 21. This joining of the many passageways is shown in Figure 2. A radially inwardly extending ring-shaped passageway 22 is provided near the bottom of the rotor and joins the lower end of the conical shaped inner passageway 21. The inner end of the ring-shaped passageway 22 enters a vertically disposed central chamber of core 23 within the rotor 16.
The rotor 16 includes an outer cup-shaped portion 24 and a combination upper and top portion 15. This combination upper and top portion is fastened around its outer circumference by a plurality of arcuately spaced cap screws 26 to the outer body portion 24. The rotor 16 comprising comprising the two main parts is nevertheless a unitary device rotating as one mass. The two-piece construction permits the easy making of passageways 21 and 22 and before assembly permits the drilling of the plural passageways 20 near the top of the outer cup-shaped portion 24 of the rotor. Over the top of the rotating rotor there is defined a ring-shaped passageway 27 beneath the upper cap member 11b. A vertically disposed cylindrical ring-shaped passageway 27 has its top joining the top passageway 27 at the upper outside of the rotor 16. The outer periphery of a radially inwardly extending annular passageway 29 joins the lower end of the passageway 28 and at its inner periphery joins the upper end of the cone-shaped passageway 19.
A specially constructed fitting 30 has an externally threaded portion at its lower end at 31 which is threadedly engaged with internal threads within a central opening portion of the upper cap 116 of the housing 11. This fitting 30 forms the base for a superstructure 32 disposed over the basic unit contained within the housing 11. Of course, the superstructure then comes an extension of the stationary housing 11. An outer pipe 33 has its lower end threadingly engaging the upper end of the special fitting 30 at 34. A special cap fitting 35 threadingly engages the upper end of the outer pipe 33 as shown at 36. An inner concentric pipe 37 and a radially inwardly projecting annular flange 38 of the cap fitting 35 are joined to one another by a threaded engagement as shown at 39. The juncture 39 is located at an intermediate position between the top and bottom of the vertically disposed inner concentric pipe 37.
An adjustable value 40 is provided on the top of the inner pipe 37 to control the discharge of steam as the steam is generated in the device of this invention. The valve 40 is threadingly engaged at 41 to the pipe 37.
The lower end 42 of the inner pipe 37 has its outer surface milled or turned down so the pipe wall is relatively thin and thus may be assembled with the other concentric members by passing downwardly through the internal threads on the annular flange 38. An intermediate concentric pipe 43 has its upper end disposed between the cap fitting 35 and the inner pipe 37. The upper end of the intermediate pipe 43 stops short of contact with the underside of the flange 38, leaving a space 44 thereover.
An annular flange 45 is provided intermediate the top and bottom of the special fitting 30. External threads are provided on the intermediate pipe 43 near its bottom and these threads cooperatively engage with internal threads on the inner aperture of the special fitting flange 45 as shown at 46. The pipe 43 includes a lower extension 47 which has its surface milled or turned down to permit it to pass by the threads 46 on the flange 45 during assembly. This is similar to the turning down of the lower extension of the inner pipe 37.
The intermediate inwardly extending annular flange 45 of the fitting 30 is provided with a plurality of arcuately spaced apart vertically disposed holes 48. These holes constitute restricted passageways of the water in the steam generator of this invention from the lower chamber 49 defined by the fitting 30 to an upper portion or chamber 50 as defined above the annular flange 45 and between the intermediate pipe 43 and the outer pipe 33. The upper limits of the chamber 50 are defined by the inner and underside of the special cap fitting 35.
A thin annular chamber 51 is disposed between the cap 35 and the intermediate pipe 43. A second thin elongated chamber 52 is concentric with the chamber 51 and is located between the intermediate pipe 43 and the lower end 42 of the inner concentric pipe 37. By reason of the space 44 over the top of the intermediate pipe 43 the thin annular chambers 51 and 52 are joined one to the other. The elongated annular passageway 52 is provided with an annular opening 53 located at the bottom of the lower extension 42 of the inner concentric pipe 37. A central passageway 54 is provided within the inner pipe 37 and is utilized to carry generated steam to the controlling valve 40 at the top thereof.
Operation of the Device of Figure 1 ~
To commence operation, water under normal line pressures is admitted to the inlet pipe or fitting 17 so that water flows in the direction of the arrow 55 to the distended or tortuous path chamber which comprises a single body of water. The arrow 56 shows movement of water form the inlet 17 through the annular passageway 18 and to the cone-shaped passageway 19 where the water proceeds upwardly in the direction of the arrow 57. From there the water enters the several radial holes 20 and moves in the direction of the arrow 58 to the inner cones-shaped passageway 21 where the water moves downwardly in the direction of the arrow 59. The passageway 21 is joined at its bottom to the annular ring-shaped passageway 22 and as shown by the arrow 60 water moves radially inwardly to the central passage 23 within the rotor 16. The water then proceeds upwardly as upwardly as indicated by the arrow 61. Here the water enters the special fitting lower chamber 49 and as indicated by the arrow 63 moves upwardly therethrough into the restricted apertures 48 and continues upwardly through such vertically disposed apertures as indicated by the arrows 64. The upper end of the chamber 50 joins the thin annular ring shaped chamber 51 and as indicated the water moves further upwardly in the direction of the arrows 65 to the space 44 just beneath the annular flange 38 of the special cap 35. Now the water changes its direction of flow and starts moving down and through the thin annular ring-shaped chamber 52 in the direction of the arrows 66. In addition to the water moving vertically into the chamber 62 a portion thereof moves radially outward through the passageway 27 in the direction of the arrows 67. At the outer end of the ring-shaped passageway the water moves down the vertical ring-shaped annular passageway 28 in the direction of the arrow 68. Now the water travels radially inwardly through the ring-shaped horizontally disposed annular passageway 29 in the direction of the arrow 69 and hence back to the outer conical shaped passageway 19 between the rotor 16 and the main body portion 11a of the housing 11.
Water now fills the entire distended chamber which as explained contains numerous passageways forming a tortuous path and providing a cycle for the movement of water therethrough. Prior to the complete filling of the system with water, rotation of the shaft is commenced. The shaft 12 is rotated by coupling a motor thereto and the rotor 16 with its several unitary parts 24, 25, and 26 is rotated at a relatively high speed causing the water to be thrown centrifugally outwardly within the chamber through any passageway thereof having a radial disposition or a radial component. The large horizontally disposed ring-shaped annular passageway 27 is one such radial passageway. This immediately results in the water being drawn downwardly out of the closed bottom passageway comprising the chamber and passageways 49, 50, 51 and 52. The water suddenly and positively pulled downwardly from this closed bottom channel creates a vacuum in the bottom of this channel which in the device of Figure 1 is at the top of the stationary superstructure at the space 44. This newly created vacuum now sets up a pull of its own which exceed and overcomes the centrifugal forces and the body of water comes back into the bottom of the closed bottom channel with a snapping action. This sudden striking of the closed bottom extinguishes movement of the column of water and there is a substantial shock imparted to and within the body of water. This water hammer or shock brings with it a rise in pressure and temperature of the body of liquid. In Horace King's book "Handbook of Hydraulics" published by McGraw-Hill (4th Ed., pp. 6-21) there is a discussion of water hammer and its creation. The King handbook states that if a passageway in a pipe line is suddenly closed (corresponding to the closed bottom channel in the applicant's device), "a dynamic pressure, I addition to the normal static pressure, is created within the pipe. This dynamic pressure is commonly called water hammer. It is caused by the sudden transformation of kinetic energy to pressure energy".
J. N. Bradley's Shockwaves in Chemistry & Physics discusses "The Measurement of Thermodynamic Quantities" in Chapter V, p. 172 of that book and states:
"A shock wave in a liquid medium is characterized by a small rise in temperature and an extremely large change in pressure."
Applicant is thus intentionally creating shock waves in this distended body of water causing both temperature and pressure rises. Although the temperature rise created by each shock is small, the shocks are repeated over and over again, one upon the another, and thereby intensified causing a material rise in temperature of the entire body of water. Each shock caused by the sudden extinguishment of flow of water at the dead-ended channels creates a force of approximately 63.4 pounds per square inch of every foot of extinguished velocity. Although this degree of pressure is only held momentarily, the succeeding shock waves are cumulative and although the pressure dissipates throughout the body of water the temperature rises materially and is not so easily dissipated as the pressure. The rise in temperature and the maintenance of that temperature rise is so spectacular that steam is almost instantly created and starts up the pipe 37 through its center passage 54 in the direction of the arrows 70. Unconverted steam in the form of water in various stages of heat is pulled downwardly in the direction of the arrows 71 whereupon the cycle is repeated with the rapidly increasing shock waves causing the water to be more easily converted into steam and that steam being discharged upwardly in the direction of the arrows 70 and thence through the adjustable valve 40. Of course, water is always being admitted to the inlet 17 to keep the system full and constantly replenish that portion of the water that has been converted to steam and has been discharged through the valve 40 for some external use.
The modified or alternative construction of Figure 5 is similar to the preferred device of Figure 1, but is shown primarily to emphasize that various body chambers may be employed. As explained for the device of Figure 1 the water chamber is distended in nature -- not any particular shape -- but expressly including one or more closed bottom channels within which a vacuum may be drawn and at least one or more radial passages or passages with radial components to produce a centrifugal action. The steam generator of Figure 5 is generally designated by the numeral 80. The generator is provided with a stationary housing 81. The housing comprises a main body portion 81a, an upper cap 81b fastened to the central body portion 81a by a circularly arranged series of arcuately spaced apart cap screws 81c, an under cap 81d fastened to the body portion 81a by a circularly arranged series of arcuately spaced apart cap screws 81e, a downwardly projecting central tubular portion 81f forming a part of the under cap 81d, and a bottom cover 81g fastened by a series of circularly arranged arcuately spaced apart cap screws 81h to the central tubular portion 81f.
A vertically disposed motor driven shaft 82 having an annular shoulder 83 therearound is journally carried within the central tubular portion 81f of the housing 81 by means of a roller bearing 84. The inner race of the bearing 84is disposed in a vertical position between the annular shoulder 83 of the rotating shaft 82 at its top and the stationary cover 81g at its bottom. An annular seal 85 is held within the housing 82 and brushes against the rotating shaft 82 to effect a sealing of the chamber above the seal from communication with the device below the seal.
A rotor, conical in shape, is designated generally by the numeral 86. The rotor is carried on and with the upper end of the motor driven shaft 82. The rotor 86 is adapted to rotate within the outer housing 81. The housing and the rotor carried therewithin together define a generally distended chamber for the body of water which has its temperature and pressure materially raised by subjecting it to shock waves. A water inlet 87 is provided in the housing cap 81d and is the means for delivering water which has its temperature and pressure materially raised by subjecting it to shock waves. A water inlet 87 is provided in the housing cap 81d and is the means for delivering water to the distended chamber within the housing 81 and in and around the rotor 86. The chamber is defined as distended for the same reasons as applied to the chamber of the device in Figure 1. The water body chamber also includes a horizontally disposed ring-shaped annular passage 88. The rotor is vertically spaced above the housing on its underside to define the ring-shaped annular passage 88. The water inlet 87 directly communicates with the ring-shaped passageway 88 as best shown in Figure 5. An upwardly and outwardly flaring annular cone shaped passageway 89 is located in the space between the housing body portion 81a and the rotor 86. A plurality of radially inwardly extending arcuately spaced apart passageways 90 are adapted to pass through a portion of the rotor 86.At their outer ends these hole-like passages 90 join the cone-shaped passageway 89. An upwardly inclined conical shaped passageway 91 is concentrically disposed radially inwardly of the conical shaped passageway 89.The inner ends of each of the plurality of horizontal passageways 90 run directly into the conical passageway 91. This joining of the many passageways is shown in Figure 5 and further in the sectional view of Figure 6. The inner cone shaped passageway 91 forms one of the closed bottom passageways of this distended chamber of the device of Figure 5.
The rotor 86 includes an outer cup-shaped member 92, an intermediate member 93 generally nesting within the cup portion 92 and a circular or disc-shaped cap member 94. A plurality of arcuately spaced apart cap screws 95 define an outer ring around the cap 94 and constitute the means of joining the cap 94 to the outer portion 92 of the rotor 86. A plurality of similar arcuately spaced apart cap screws 96 define an inner ring around the cap 94 to the intermediate portion 93 of the rotor 86.these three body members with their cap screws 95 and 96 together constitute a unitary rotor which rotates within the stationary housing 81 and thereby crates the shock waves for effecting the rise in the temperature of the distended body of water to generate steam.
The rotor 86 includes an annular ring shaped passage 97 disposed between the intermediate portion 93 and the cap 94. The top of the outer annular portion of the intermediate portion 93 is milled or turned down to provide the space for the annular passageway 97. The rotor also includes a plurality of arcuately spaced apart vertically disposed closed bottom channels 98. The arrangement of these holes or channels 98 is in a circular path which is generally arranged concentric to the center of the composite rotor. The inner annular surface 99 of the top of the intermediate portion of the rotor has not been milled down and thus having its full height abuts the underside of the cap 94. Thus when the cap screws 96 are drawn up tightly the unmilled central ring portion 99 of the member 93 acts as a spacer for the remainder of the top of that member from the underside of the cap 94. This clearly defines the radial passageway 97 which joins the inner cone shaped passageway 91 with the open topped closed bottom holes 98. The rotor is further provided with a central vertically disposed passageway 100 about its vertical centerline. At the juncture of the bottom center of the intermediate member 93 of the rotor with the bottom of the cup-shaped outer member 92 of the rotor the central passageway 100 is enlarged as shown at 101. A plurality of relatively small diameter radially disposed holes or passageways 102 join each of said closed bottom channels 98 with the enlarged chamber 101 at the center of the rotor. These radial passageways 102 are disposed at a position spaced above the closed bottoms of the holes 98. It is generally through these minute relief holes 102 that generated steam is permitted access to the center of the rotor where it moves upwardly through the passage 100 and thence into an enlarged steam passageway 103 located above the channel 100. Steam may be permitted free escape from this passageway 103 or may be selectively discharged by a suitable adjustable valve means such as that shown at 40 in Figure 1.
Operation of the Device of Figure 5 ~
As for the steam generator of Figure 1 water is admitted to the system of Figure 5 by passing through the inlet 87 in the direction of the arrows 104. The water then moves in the annular ring-shaped passageway 88 in the direction of the arrows 105 to the juncture with the cone-shaped passageway 89. the water now moves upwardly in the direction of the arrows 106 to the juncture of the full annular passageway 89 with the plural radial passages 90. Water then moves inwardly in the direction of the arrows 107. As previously stated, an inner concentric cone-shaped passageway 91 joins these several radial holes 90 and thus the incoming water fills that passageway as shown by the arrows 108. As the ring-shaped bottom of the passage 91 is effectively closed the water then moves radially inwardly across the top of the outer portion of the intermediate member 93 of the rotor in the passageway 97 as shown by the arrows 110 to thus fill the entire distended chamber formed by this maze of multi-directional passageways. Most of the arrows just described for the movement of water in the various chambers and passageways are two headed indicating that water during the operation of the device moves in both directions.
Prior to the system being completely filled with water, rotational drive is imparted to the shaft 82 and thereupon its integral rotor 89 is also rotated. Rotation is at relatively high speeds. The initial response to the body of water is its centrifugal action through all radial passageways and passageways having radial components. In this device the primary centrifugal action is created in the elongated radially outwardly extending annular ring shaped horizontally disposed passageway 97. The imposition of this force in the body of water causes the columns of water in the multiple closed ended channels 98 within the rotor to be drawn upwardly out of their closed bottoms.
Almost immediately there is a multiplicity of vacuums created in each closed bottom with the result that the vacuum overcome and exceed the opposite force of centrifugal action to thereby cause the columns of water to snap back into the closed bottoms of these channels. As previously explained for the operation of the device of Figure 1 the extinguishment of the motion of the body of water by the closed bottoms of the channels imposes shock waves in the distended body of water so that there is an incremental increase in both the temperature and pressure of the body of water. The repeated and continuous rotation of the rotor causes multiple shock waves or water hammer and actually an intensification of the shocks when they are occasioned one upon the other. Thus what would have been only a small rise in temperature is now substantial. The pressures similarly rise but they quickly dissipate in the system. The water commences its conversion to steam generally in the area of the closed bottoms of the channels 98 where the greatest effect of the snap action shocks takes place. This newly created steam is permitted to escape radially inwardly through the restricted holes 102 in the direction of the arrows 111. Once in the central chambers of the rotor the steam moves vertically upward through the successive passages 101, 100 and 13 as indicated by the arrows 112.
Both the devices of Figures 1 and 2 act to generate steam. Their common attributes are their stationary housings with rotors therein which together define distended chambers with tortuous passageways and at least one closed bottom passageway and a passageway permitting centrifugal action to create forces in the body of water opposite to the vacuum created forces in the body of water opposite to the vacuum created forces in the closed bottom channels. In Figure 1 the closed bottom channel is located in the stationary housing portion of the device whereas in Figure 5 the closed bottom channels are located in the moving rotor. It is thus apparent that the steam generator of this invention may take many and varied forms without departing from the principles disclosed herein. Thus it is not my intention to limit the patent granted herein otherwise than as necessitated by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
(1) A steam generator comprising a stationary housing. A rotor journally mounted within said stationary housing, said housing and rotor together defining a distended chamber, means delivering water to said distended chamber, at least one portion of said distended chamber comprising a closed end passageway and at least another portion of said distended chamber comprising another passageway capable of being subjected to centrifugal force, means rotating said rotor when the distended chamber has water therein whereby such rotation creates shock waves in the body of water in said distended chamber by reason of centrifugal action occurring in said distended chamber by reason of centrifugal action occurring in said another passageway and a vacuum occurring in the closed end passageway and the two forces alternately conflicting and overcoming one another to produce and intensify shocks in said body of water to thereby cause a substantial rise in temperature and pressure of the body of water, thereby converting a portion of said body of water to steam, and means for removing steam created in the body of water.
(2) A steam generator as defined in claim 1 in which said rotor is generally cone shaped on its outer surface and the distended chamber comprises a series of generally narrow passageways in a multi-directional manner.
(3) A steam generator as defined in claim 1 in which said closed end passageway is disposed in the stationary housing.
(4) A steam generator as defined in claim 1 in which said closed end passageway is disposed in the rotor.
(5) A steam generator as defined in claim 1 in which said stationary housing includes a superstructure offset from said portion housing said rotor.
(6) A steam generator as defined in claim 5 in which said superstructure comprises a plurality of concentric pipe members and wherein the closed end passageway comprises thin annular ring shaped passageways at one end of said superstructure.
(7) A steam generator as defined in claim 6 in which in which said superstructure of concentric pipes includes a series of alternately large and small passageways.
(8) A steam generator as defined in claim 2 in which there is included a first thin cone shaped annular passageway disposed between the stationary housing and the rotor, a second thin cone shaped annular passageway disposed within said rotor and generally concentric to said first of said cone shaped passageways, and a plurality of arcuately spaced apart radially disposed passages in said rotor joining said first and second cone shaped passageways.
(9) A steam generator as set forth in claim 8 in which there is included a central vertically disposed passageway within said rotor and a radially disposed passageway communicating between said second cone shaped passageway and said central vertically disposed passageways within said rotor.
(10) A steam generator as set forth in claim 8 in which there is included a central vertically disposed passageway within said rotor, and said radially directed passageway communicating with at least one of said cone shaped passageways and directly communicating with said closed end passageway, and means discharging said closed end passageway said water to the central vertically disposed passageway in said rotor.
(11) A steam generator as set forth in claim 10 in which said means discharging steam comprises an auxiliary passageway from said closed end channel to said central vertically disposed passageway in said rotor.
(12) A steam generator as set forth in claim 8 in which the closed end passageway includes a plurality of generally vertically disposed closed bottom holes in said rotor and arranged in arcuately spaced apart position to define a generally circular path, said rotor having a central passageway, and series of passageways including radial passageways joining said second thin cone shaped passageway and the tops of said plurality of generally vertically disposed closed bottom holes, and restricted passageways joining said central passageway and each of said plurality of closed bottom holes intermediate their tops and bottoms whereby steam is permitted to escape radially inwardly through said restricted passageways to said central rotor passageway.
(13) A steam generator comprising a stationary housing, a cone shaped rotor journally mounted for rotation within said stationary housing, said housing and rotor together defining a distended multi-passageway chamber, means delivering water to said distended chamber, at least one passageway of said distended chamber having a closed end, and at least another passageway of said distended chamber having a radial component, means rotating said one shaped rotor when the distended chamber has water therein whereby such rotation creates water hammer shock waves in the body of water in said distended chamber by reason of the centrifugal action created in said radial component passageway and the vacuum created by the closed end passageway causing the movement of water in that passageway to be suddenly extinguished, and the alternating of the said centrifugal action and the vacuum continuing to create shocks and cause a rise in temperature and pressure of the body of water, and means for removing steam created in the body of water.
(14) A steam generator as defined in claim 13 in which said closed passageway comprises an annular ring shaped passageway in said stationary housing.
(15) A steam generator as defined in claim 13 in which said closed end passageway comprises a plurality of vertically disposed closed bottom holes in said rotor.
Comments & Notes ~
Infinite Energy (July-August 1995, p. 30)
"Other Cavitation Reports: The Schaeffer Steam Generator"
by Michael Huffman
…I have two reports done by two university professors on two different versions of the Aqua machine.
As some of you may know, Carl Schaeffer patented his device in 1973. He reportedly spent about $5 million developing and marketing the device. He faced a great deal of resistance from the academic community, and was never able to commercially manufacture the device. He ended up selling the patent for the device in 1988 to the Aqua Corporation in Chicago for $1, shortly before he died. Bob Price was an engineer who had worked with Schaeffer on the device for 12 years. He has his own machine shop and was able to design, build and test his own prototypes.
He went to the Aqua Corporation and together they spent an additional $500,000 developing and attempting to market the device. Again, they faces a great deal of skepticism, and were unable to successfully market the device. Their main problem was, however, that they were asking $50 million for a technology that would become public domain in a couple of years. Grant Stouffle was the CEO of ill-fated Aqua, Inc., and in my opinion, not a very realistic businessman. Even though they got some serious multi-million dollar offers from some large capitalization, international corporations, Grant believed that the technology was worth more than that, and managed to convince the stockholders that they should hold out for more money.
When Bob Price's wife died, he left Aqua Inc to live with his family in another state. Sheldon Hughes joined the Aqua Corporation as an engineer in 1990, and helped develop the device further. He didn't have a machine shop, and the Aqua Corporation ended up spending between 10 and 50 thousand dollars per unit to have them made. Sheldon was working on a deal with the Swenson Corporation, a manufacturer of multi-effect evaporators, to make and test prototypes. That was where AI first saw the machine that I reported on in the March/April edition of Infinite Energy. The Aqua Corp ended up running out of money shortly after that, and no more prototypes were ever built. The Aqua Corp then formally folded.
The first report that I have from the Aqua Corp was titled, "Preliminary Report on Aqua Inc Rotary Impeller Water Heater". It was written by Linda McDonald, chairman of the Dept. of Physics, North Park College, IL (May 5, 1989). The report s very much like Scott Little's report on the Yusmar. The report is 9 pages long. There is an introduction which defines the variables and formulae, a description of the physical characteristics of the apparatus, a description of the testing procedure and instrumentation, a page of data collected from the 10 test runs performed in three temperature ranges, a conclusion section, and an appendix.
The machine that was tested was one of Bob Price's variations of the Schaeffer device. The test procedure used was also very similar to Scott's. It was a basic barrel calorimetry type test in which the incoming water temperature was measured against the elevated outgoing water temperature, the volume of water, the power consumption, and the time were measured. In the error analysis section, the accuracy of the measurements was calculated to be +/- 11%. No mention at all was made of the efficiency of the motor or any motor-related heat losses. The table of data reported explicitly that the efficiency of the device was between 1.09 and 1.30, depending on the output temperature of the run. The operating temperatures ranged from 97° F to157° F. The lower temperatures gave the higher efficiencies.
The other university test report is titled "Aqua Motor Tests" by the Institute for Aviation Research, Wichita State University, KS, and was written by Glen W. Zumwalt, PhD, Professor of Aerospace Engineering, dated March 8, 1990. The tests were performed on several of Sheldon's designs. The report is 8 pages long. Much of the same format is used for the report, with the addition of two diagrams of the test bed configuration. The data collected and the formulae sued were described in even greater detail than the McDonald report. In this report, a paragraph is devoted to the observation of "blue steam" [Exactly what James Griggs sees with his machine. - Ed., Inf. En]. The testers speculated that the coloration may have been due to the boiling of the grease in the shaft seal. Samples were collected and analyzed with a gas chromatograph, but only pure water was found. They concluded that the coloration remained a mystery.
The issue of efficiency was treated in a very interesting manner, however. In this report, at the end of the data tables for each test run, there is the statement, "If the electric motor efficiency is XX.X%, shaft power supplied equals the heat produced". The efficiency numbers used varied with the different rotor designs, but some of the numbers exceeded the manufacturer's nameplate efficiency rating, which led to the recommendation by Prof. Zumwalt that a dynamometer be used in future tests to verify the data collected in the barrel calorimetry tests.
The test performed on the "Griggs gadget" by the Emprise Corp report an efficiency of 120% for hot water runs, and 140% for steam runs. This report was written by R.A. Dubose, President of the Emprise Corp on February 16, 1994. Again, this report relied on the motor manufacturer's nameplate efficiency rating in its' calculations, and recommended that a dynamometer be installed in the test bed to verify the data collected and reported.
The test procedure was the barrel calorimetry type of test that Jed Rothwell and Gene Mallove described in their reports. Sheldon also wrote a couple of reports to the Aqua Corp shareholders on the tests performed at the Swenson Corp testing facility. One report is 4 pages long, and the other is 3 pages. Sheldon measured the amount of steam collected, and found that it was far greater than his device than with an electric boiler. These reports include graphs that plot the horsepower used against the steam value output. Depending on the amount of horsepower used, the amount of steam collected was 250% to 500% more than an equivalent powered resistance coil boiler system. The minutes of the Aqua Corp stockholder meetings show that they voted to have Sheldon patent his design, but Sheldon said that they never gave him the money to do it. As a result, he never patented any of the designs that he came up with while working with the Aqua Corp.
As you can see from all these reports done by some fairly well qualified individuals, mostly in laboratory settings, these devices demonstrate overunity efficiency…
I just got a packet of information from my dad containing more information about the devices developed by Aqua Inc and Sonaqua Inc. The first report was made by Raymond E. Ross, and I believe he was a principal of Sonaqua Inc of Colorado. The report is not dated, but the note at the bottom from my father suggests that Aquasonics had purchased a license form Sonaqua Inc (the original Schaeffer corporation) to develop and market the Schaeffer device. The note further explains that Aquasonics failed to live up to the contract, went bankrupt, and lost its license. The Colorado based company was marketing the device as a home heating system, and was calling it the "Delta Tee".
Evidently, Raymond Ross installed one of these devices in his home, and took measurements of the performance. There is no description of the device, the testing protocols, or instrumentation used to make his claims. The report was simply a statement, according to my father's note, and a set of preliminary data that was recorded before sending the device to the Battelle Institute in Columbus OH for testing in their lab.
It was not a formal report. I would call it more of a testimonial that a scientific report, but it does have some very interesting things to say. The report made by the Battelle Institute was not included in the packet. It was supposedly a formal report of over-unity performance that was the result of testing done at the Battelle Institute. According to Bob Price Aquasonics supposedly paid $40,000 to Battelle Institute to perform these tests… The following is the complete report from Aquasonics, Inc.:
The Aquasonics Delta-Tee ~
In my opinion, the conventional way of estimating BTU output (GPM x delta-T) cannot be used for our unit. I think we have proved this at the Ross residence in Broomfield. By the conventional way of estimating BTU output, we are heating a 1440 sq. ft. house with a full basement, or a total of 2880 sq. ft. to 75° F. with the outside temperature of 0° F with less than 20,000 BTU/hour.
A separate test was made with immersion-type electric heaters. All engineers agree that this way of heating water is as close to 100% efficiency as you can get. Two 4.5 kilowatt immersion units were used in the same tank and through the same piping (two 4.5 kw immersion units = 30,708 BTUH). This 100% efficient water heater could not heat the house above 66° F when the outside temperature was 15° F. A fire had to be built in the fireplace to keep the house warm. The Aquasonics Delta Tee unit did a better job for 10% less cost. I think a good way to test the BTU output would be to build a 20' x 20' refrigerated cooler (like a meat cooler) and inside of this build a small house. This way we could have a controlled environment and measure the air temperature inside the house. In the past year we have tried almost every type of thermometer that is on the market and we can't believe the readings we get, nor could we get anyone else to believe them. With some of the readings we got, the unit showed as high as 700% efficiency. Several of the best engineers in the country tried to prove us wrong and couldn't. May time the water temperature at the unit would read 150° F, run through 100 ft of 3/5" baseboard radiator and return to the unit at 152° F, a gain of 2 ° F after running through 100 ft of radiator and giving off heat. This is impossible. It is also impossible to heat 2,880 sq ft of floor space with two 3-hp motors that equal 13,200 BTUH, but the Aquasonics Delta-Tee does the job and does it well.
Report made by Raymond E. Ross [Signature]
The second page of the report is a piece of paper with the hand written results of 10 test runs. The average efficiency was 96%, not taking into account the benefit of the inefficiency of motors. There was no mention of the formulae sued to come up with these numbers.
Cribbed from Bill Beaty @ http://www.rexresearch.com/www.eskimo.com:
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Marshall Dudley)
Subject: Another theory for Griggs device
Date: Sat, 17 Dec 1994 12:14 -0500 (EST)
In a previous post I hinted at another possibility of what may be happening in the Griggs device when I mentioned "non-linearities in the steam table" as one of several things that should be looked at. Since I did not get any bites on that, let me outline a discussion I had with a scientist from Oak Ridge National Labs about the Griggs device several months ago. This discussion is off the record, and most likely will not be collaborated, just as some of the results of their CF cell experiments are.
I had an occasion to meet with this person and begun describing the Griggs device to him. After telling him how it worked I ended it with, "and it is reported to produce more steam or hot water than then the input power should produce". His response was "that's not surprising". I was almost floored.
He then told me that is a fairly well known fact among some researchers that the published steam tables are wrong. The original team which made up the steam tables found that toward the extremes (high pressure high temperature and low pressure and temperature) there are unexplained non-linearities. Since these non-linearities could not be explained, and were shown to not obey the conservation of energy, they fudged the tables to get rid of the non-linearities. They had assumed that there must be an error in their measurements or equipment since it did not jive with theory. Since then others have found the same thing, but none of them will stick their neck out to declare that steam tables which have been in use for decades are wrong, especially since there seems to be no theory to explain these non-linearities. Anyway, he said that if you go through a cycle of vaporization at one pressure and condensation at a higher pressure and temperature, when you get back to the original temperature and pressure the "corrected" steam table does not close. That is to say, according to the measurements there is steam left over which should not be there, and by conservation of energy cannot be there. Anyway, he said that it seems that such a device such as Griggs would enhance this non-linearity effect and therefore produce more energy than is supplied. He does not have the foggiest idea where the excess energy could come from, but simply that given what he knows about the non-linearities in the (corrected) steam tables, that seems like a good place to start looking. I find the idea intriguing, but as with so many other theories, it leaves one with as many questions as it gives answers.
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